The origin of the name Calaré comes from the Wiradjuri Aboriginal name for the Lachlan River, which runs through the western part of the Country. The name has two pronunciations; the Kul-air pronunciation which was established under Australian rule and the actual Wiradjuri pronunciation Kal-ah-ree ,which since Independence has been established as the correct way to pronounciate the word, as a mark of respect to the indigenous people of the country.
History of CalaréEdit
Main article: History of Calaré
The History of Calaré began with the arrival of European explorers, who first sighted the country in 1770 and formally began settlement in 1810. Since then, Calaré has grown from a small colonial backwater to a modern and sophisticated nation-state that is proud to take its place on the world stage.
Prior to European arrival there is evidence of indigenous settlement having taken place at least 10,000 years ago, with the Aboriginal peoples having come to Australia over 40,000 years ago. This period is referred to as the prehistory of Calaré.
Wollongong was the first area of Calaré to be settled in 1810 when it was established as a logging settlement by cedar cutters, but by 1812 the first graziers had arrived in the area. Settlements were subsequently established at othe locations, with settlers coming for a variety of reasons. Further inland West of the colonial capital of Sydney, Bathurst was settled in 1815 at the creation of Governor Lachlan Macquarie as a small grazing settlement which would later benefit from the discovery of gold in 1851.
Other major regional centres in Calaré were settled from 1815 onwards with the eventual Calaréann capital Duvall settled in 1817, Gerringong and Nowra in 1824, Goulburn in 1825, Orange in 1829, Cowra in 1831, Forbes in 1834, Parkes in 1853 and Batemans Bay in 1885. For many years there were only a few thousand settlers in Calaré, despite their slow beginnings these centres would boom with the discovery of gold and gemstones on the tablelands, coupled with the arrival of the railways in the 1880s, the latter half of the nineteenth century saw a steady growth in the population of the region, and with it a distinct local identity.
In 1901 after ten years of debate, conventions and referenda, Calaré was joined to the newly formed Commonwealth of Australia on the 1 of January 1901. When Cook had sailed by 131 years earlier it had been part of the colony (now state) of New South Wales. Throughout much of the Australian period, there was constant agitation for the seperation of Calaré from New South Wales. A number of plans were drawn up over the years, including royal commissions and finally a referendum in 1967, which was defeated.
With the economic decline of the world economy in the 1970s, Calaré began to show signs of economic decay. Despite this, some coastal centres enjoyed a boom of development and growth. Nowra and Batemans Bay both went from being sleepy fishing ports to major resort and tourist centres, along with the increasingly industrial Wollongong, outstripping the inland centres and taking away services from these towns. the success of others bred resentment in those towns and communities that had once enjoyed better times. In frustration, this disenfranchised bloc embraced the ideas of the Free Calaré Party, which grew to become a radical group that advocated the removal of overseas interests from Australia and the radical reform of the Australian political system.
In 1976 the New South Wales Liberal-National coalition government lost the March general election to the Labor party by 22 seats, an election record. One of the main campaign issues had been Statehood for Calaré and surrounding areas. The Liberal-National coalition government had opposed such a move, citing the need to keep the territorial integrity of New South Wales intact. The Labor party under the leadership of Neville Wran were in favour of initiating a process where by the matter was resolved by a series of referenda in the local government areas of the Central Tablelands, Central West Plains, Illawara and South Coast. The free Calaré party agitated for complete independence of the areas, but the Labor party at both state and federal levels favoured a more politically palatable approach of statehood, whilst the Liberal-National government had argued for no change at all. In 1979 the process began with the passing of the Calaréann statehood referenda and other related matters bill through both the New South Wales and Austrailan Federal parliaments. On the 3rd of September 1979 the local government areas of Wingecarribee, Shoalhaven, Kiama, Wollongong, Shellharbor, Eurobodalla, Cabonne, Blayney, Cowra, Bathurst, Oberon, Lithgow, Mudgee, Orange, Forbes, Palerang, Goulburn, Upper Lachlan, Weddin, Parkes, Young, Harden and Yass voted on the question of statehood for Calaré with the vast majority (74%) of the electorate voting yes. This did not please everyone but the main political parties agreed to honour the electorates wishes. The 23 council areas on the 14th of February 1981 were proclaimed the Seventh state of the Commonwealth of Australia with the city of Duvall being designated state capital.
After Fifteen years of statehood the free Calaré party morphed into the united Calaréann militia, which took up arms in early 1996, and was quickly involved in a violent struggle for control of the region. The early years of the civil war were an insurgency carried out in remote and rugged bushland. The tables turned in 1998 when the militia turned on the towns and began to occupy them against distracted Australian resistance.
By late 1999 the militia had gained control of almost all the towns in the Western and Central regions. Only the coastal fringe of Wollongong and Duvall, as the centre of government administration in the region, remained under "Australian" control. An Australian army counter-attack, known as operation Taipan, failed to dislodge the rebels, and after some heavy handed actions by the Australian army led to any remaining support for the Australian government to leech away. A successful ceasefire was negotiated by the international community came into force in early 2000, and would lead to the treaty of Singapore , which was signed on the 22nd of May 2000. In the subsequent referendum held in late September 2000, 19 out of the original 23 regions of Calaré voted for Independence (Harden, Lithgow, Mudgee and Yass voted against) and so formed the Crowned Republic of Calaré on the 31st of October 2001.
Government of CalaréEdit
Main Article: Government of Calaré
The Government of Calaré, is a Constitutional Monarchy under Parliamentary Democracy, heavily patterned on the Westminster system. The Government of Calaré uses a form of Constitutional Monarchy known as a Crowned Republic as the monarch's role is ceremonial and all the royal prerogatives are prescribed by custom and law in such a way the monarch has little or no discretion over governmental and constitutional issues.
At present, the government consists of three branches, which within their own ambit, carry out the day to day business of governing Calaré. Power is divided between these branches, preventing any of them from acting against the basic constitutional principles of the country.
The principal instrument of government is the Constitution of Calaré. The constitution sets out the powers and limitations of each branch of the government, and can only be changed by the people through a referendum