| Motto: Jalan untrodden boleh mengakibatkan bintang|
(English: The untrodden path may lead to the stars)
| Capital |
| Banku Taou' |
Banku Taou' (5,758,000)
|Official language(s)||Indonesian, Malay, English|
| Government |
| Sultanate with Democratic legislature and judicial branches|
Buana Klahan Jebat
• 2010 est.
(- in union)
| GDP |
• Per capita
(- in union)
(- in union)
|HDI||0.839 – 62|
Bangorai', officially the Sultanate of Bangorai' (pronounced /ˈbæŋɔɹaɪ/), is a small nation in Southeast Asia. It occupies the northwest tip of the island of Borneo. Bangorai' is comprised of the mainland area, as well as several islands off the coast in the South China Sea. Bangorai' has a growing population of over 18 million people. The country shares borders with Malaysia to the east, Indonesia to the south, and the South China Sea to the north and west. Being near the equator gives the country a tropical climate.
The government is a Sultanate that was started when the country first gained it's independence, but despite having a single ruler, the nation still has may freedoms and rights. The current leader is Buana Klahan Jebat.
Today, Bangorai' is a major commercial, banking, and shipping center of Southeast Asia. Despite a growing economy and widespread oil wealth, poverty is widespread, especially in the major urban centers like Banku Taou', Mae Rayong, and Pamang Buri.
Bangorai's history dates back to the 12 century (approximately 1178 A.D.) During this time, the colonization along the Kapuas River occurred. There are several temple sites in the Delta area and only recently has archaeological work been done on them. Theses early peoples, recently named the Kapunians, cultivated the land and built several interconnected cities. The population of the Kapunian Empire at it's height was only a few thousand, but archeologists have found that they had a vast trading system with other empires at the time.
British control and IndependenceEdit
In the late 1700s, only recently after the massive migration to Malaysia, flocks of Europeans, mainly British, came to Bangorai' and claimed control over the area. They brought Christianity to the nation, and soon the population was rapidly increasing. The British established a capital city on the banks of the Kapuas River and began trading tea, rice, and other exotic items, as part of the East India Trading Company, to the western world. Even today, the impact of these colonialists can be seen in the architecture and way of life. Shortly after World War II, thoughts of Independence were growing. Many Guerilla fighters came into act, trying to push the British out. Their attempts were unsuccessful, however, at the same time, similar events were occurring on the Malay Peninsula, and as a way to get out of fighting two fronts, the British gave in. Finally on March 14, 1951, a peaceful treaty was arranged, and the new Sultanate of Bangor was created.
The small, poor nation was now on it's own. Finally after several unprosperous years, oil was discovered in large quantities. The country was finally entering the world market. However, before it could stablize, communism erupted in the nation. Once again Bangorai' was edging towards war- this time with itself. The leader of the communist group, Jeharo Ali Watima, crashed into the capital city and in a series of terrorist acts, the Sultan was killed. Jeharo set alight the oil fields and set up a small military group to patrol the capital city, keeping the citizens under control and in fear. Finally the U.S. army and other alliance nations came into act to prevent the further spread of communism. The battle was brief, and surprisingly the communists were defeated. The old government was helped put into place, this time with many democratic additions. The fires were put out and the oil began to be pumped once more. As a protection act and for further expansion, the United States established a naval base in the small city of Kaeo Wat and the city became an American Dependancy.
Through the 80's and 90's, Bangorai' began to expand. In 1989, the capital was moved from Ben Pelaou, the old colonial city of the south, to the new largest city in the country- Banku Taou'. This fairly recent metropolis provided many new business opportunities and the hopes of a beautiful capital. With this step, Bangorai' became known to the world. In the development boom of the 90's, many of Bangorai's tallest buildings were built. Many developers became bankrupt, and today you can see some of the abandoned construction sites such as Kajara. Banku Taou' didn't receive much growth due to the city's proximity to the old airport, but when the new International Airport was opened in 2000, skyscrapers began to be seen on each street corner, and today there is no slowing down. Today, Bangorai's economy is flourishing and the nation is fast becoming a hotspot for tourism, industry, and commerce. The main population centers are the capital (Banku Taou'), the Tri Cities/ Mae Rayong, and the Kapuas River Delta.
Being located on the island of Borneo, Bangorai' has a very drastic landscape. For the most part, it consists of coastal plains rising up to dense forested mountains. Like most of Borneo, the country is characterized by the Borneo Lowland Rainforests, however in recent years, many miles of this forest have been cut down. Currently there are new laws being made to prevent the destroying of the rainforest. The highest point, located in the heart of the nation is Mt. Kocobaru, rising up to 1,400 meters. In addition to many mountains, Bangorai is made up of several islands off its coast. Nine of them are inhabited. These islands are home to small tourist towns and fishing villages. Many of them are served by small airfields to bring in supplies. There are two major rivers, as well as several lesser ones. The main two are the Kapuas to the south, and the Rajang to the northeast.
In recent years, several man-made geographical features have been constructed. Among these include: Banku Taou' International Seaport and Free Zone, Pantai Bharu, Alwaj Mutiara, and several oters. Most of these are built on reclaimed or semi-reclaimed land.
Banku Taou' is the official capital and largest city in Bangorai'. The administrative quarter and all branches of the government are located in Kenjaya- a pre planned suburb east of downtown. Also located in the area is embassy way, a large protected block housing all embassies in the country, the Sultan's palace, governing buildings, and various ministries. In addition, Banku Taou' is also the nation's main commercial and financial centre. Other major cities include: Kaeo Wat, Pamang Buri, Tanjung Bambu, Ben Pelaou, Mae Rayong, Riu Tianak, and Johor Sawan.
The local climate is equatorial and characterised by the annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons. Due to this, the country is humid most of the time. Rolling fog fills much of the higher elevation areas. Wind is relatively rare, but when it does occur, it can be at very high speeds. Typhoons are also present. Most of the time, the country is missed or get hit by the outer edge of the storm, but with the increase in Tropical storm activity, concerns are being raised.
Bangorai' is extremely dynamic in resources- especially agriculturally. The country exports high amounts of rice, rubber, fish, timber, cocoa, pineapples, and tea. All these combine to make one of the highest income sources for the country. Logging only became a major resource recently, however it has gotten out of hand and it is getting hard to control the widespread deforestation (much of it illegal).
Petroleum and natural gas are by far the country's number one mineral resource. most of it is located in oil fields in the Kapuas Delta area and off the western coast. Other minerals of lesser importance are: copper, coal, clay, limestone, and granite. Very small quantities of diamond are produced. At its peak, Bangorai' produced 490,000 barrels of oil a day. Since then, they have cut back to prolong the fields' lives. Bangor National Petrol Corporate (BNPC) also refines several thousand barrels a day. It's largest refinery is located near the Tanjung Bambu Port. In addition, almost all of the country's natural gas is liquified at the LNG plant near the same location. Both of the plants opened in 1984 and are some of the largest in all of Asia. Bangorai' exports most of it's oil and natural gas to other Asian countries, as well as a few to American and European nations. in 2000, exports reached over 90 cargoes a day. The current oil reserves are expected to last until al least 2020, and there is research being done on possible off-shore oil locations.
For such a small nation, Bangorai has a very diverse economy. Through much of its history, rice and tea were the prime exports and sources of income. Today, oil is by far the number one source of wealth for the nation. Other major sources of income for the country are: Banking, Tourism, and Shipping. Farming is still very important. The major rural centers are found along the nations main rivers. Despite a growing wealthy upper class, poverty is rapidly spreading as well. Many places, shanties can be found wall to wall with many of Bangorai's most elite citizens.
Energy use is a major debate in Bangorai'. Most of it's energy comes from natural gas plants. Currently, the Sultan and his advisors are, looking into the effects of building a major hydro-electric plant across the Kapuas River.
Bangorai' does not have it's own official language, as it's people came from the same origins as it's neighboring countries. The main two are Malay and Indonesian. Many people also speak English due to tourism and relations with the United Kingdom and the United States. In schools however, the Malay is the main language taught and studied. Children take courses on Malaysian through their entire school careers. Once in older grades, students have the opportunity to take courses on Indonesian (to learn the differences between that and Malay) as well as some English.
Education in Bangorai' is monitored from the Ministry of Education located in Kenjaya. The education process starts at around the age of six. Children attend a kindergarten, then for five years they receive a primary education. That is followed by five more years of Secondary education. After that they are given the chance to attend university.
Despite being a multi-religious nation, Islam is by far Bangorai's largest and official religion. In a poll taken in 2000, it was found that 71% of the population practiced Islam, 16% practiced Buddhism, 10% were Christians, and 3% were other, meaning either no religion or Indigenous Religions. Bangorai' supplies religious freedom to everyone and part of its diversity is due to the colonial missionaries (as well as a few modern ones) that brought their ideas to the people and established churches.